Why is the maximum MTU size 1472 bytes when using ping?

On most systems the default interface MTU size is set to 1500 bytes:

ens160: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        inet 192.168.86.5  netmask 255.255.255.0  broadcast 192.168.86.255
        inet6 fe80::20c:29ff:fe9f:7062  prefixlen 64  scopeid 0x20<link>
        inet6 2600:6c40:7e80:2515:20c:29ff:fe9f:7062  prefixlen 64  scopeid 0x0<global>
        ether 00:0c:29:9f:70:62  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 69  bytes 6460 (6.4 KB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 4842873  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 52  bytes 5902 (5.9 KB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

By using the ping command we can validate our network path is capable of transferring 1500 byte packets. But why does the command fail when the packet size is set to 1500 bytes?

[email protected]:~$ ping -M do -c 1 -s 1500 128.252.5.113
PING 128.252.5.113 (128.252.5.113) 1500(1528) bytes of data.
ping: local error: Message too long, mtu=1500

--- 128.252.5.113 ping statistics ---
1 packets transmitted, 0 received, +1 errors, 100% packet loss, time 0ms

If the ICMP packet size is reduced to 1472 bytes the transfer is successful:

[email protected]:~$ ping -M do -c 1 -s 1472 128.252.5.113
PING 128.252.5.113 (128.252.5.113) 1472(1500) bytes of data.
1480 bytes from 128.252.5.113: icmp_seq=1 ttl=55 time=12.7 ms

--- 128.252.5.113 ping statistics ---
1 packets transmitted, 1 received, 0% packet loss, time 0ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 12.796/12.796/12.796/0.000 ms

Using tshark, we can capture and decode what is going on. In this case nothing. When the MTU on the interface is 1500 bytes, the operating system is dropping the packet before it hits the wire.

Note: The error message: ping: local error: Message too long, mtu=1500 helps to validate this is a OS rejection, and not a network rejection.

[email protected]:~$ sudo tshark -i ens160 -n -V icmp
Capturing on 'ens160'

....nothing captured.....

Increasing the MTU size on the interface to 9000 bytes changes the results:

[email protected]:~$ sudo ifconfig ens160 mtu 9000

[email protected]:~$ ifconfig
ens160: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 9000
        inet 192.168.86.5  netmask 255.255.255.0  broadcast 192.168.86.255
        inet6 fe80::20c:29ff:fe9f:7062  prefixlen 64  scopeid 0x20<link>
        inet6 2600:6c40:7e80:2515:20c:29ff:fe9f:7062  prefixlen 64  scopeid 0x0<global>
        ether 00:0c:29:9f:70:62  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 185  bytes 51601 (51.6 KB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 4843390  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 28  bytes 4273 (4.2 KB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

The local error goes away, but the ping still fails:

[email protected]:~$ ping -M do -c 1 -s 1500 128.252.5.113
PING 128.252.5.113 (128.252.5.113) 1500(1528) bytes of data.

--- 128.252.5.113 ping statistics ---
1 packets transmitted, 0 received, 100% packet loss, time 0ms

Now we can see the results from tshark, since the OS is no longer dropping the packets before they hit the wire:

Internet Protocol Version 4, Src: 192.168.86.5, Dst: 128.252.5.113
    0100 .... = Version: 4
    .... 0101 = Header Length: 20 bytes (5)
    Differentiated Services Field: 0x00 (DSCP: CS0, ECN: Not-ECT)
        0000 00.. = Differentiated Services Codepoint: Default (0)
        .... ..00 = Explicit Congestion Notification: Not ECN-Capable Transport (0)
    Total Length: 1528
    Identification: 0x0000 (0)
    Flags: 0x4000, Don't fragment
        0... .... .... .... = Reserved bit: Not set
        .1.. .... .... .... = Don't fragment: Set
        ..0. .... .... .... = More fragments: Not set
        ...0 0000 0000 0000 = Fragment offset: 0
    Time to live: 64
    Protocol: ICMP (1)
    Header checksum: 0x97ea [validation disabled]
    [Header checksum status: Unverified]
    Source: 192.168.86.5
    Destination: 128.252.5.113
Internet Control Message Protocol
    Type: 8 (Echo (ping) request)
    Code: 0
    Checksum: 0x710e [correct]
    [Checksum Status: Good]
    Identifier (BE): 10184 (0x27c8)
    Identifier (LE): 51239 (0xc827)
    Sequence number (BE): 1 (0x0001)
    Sequence number (LE): 256 (0x0100)
    Timestamp from icmp data: Jul  8, 2020 12:18:15.000000000 CDT
    [Timestamp from icmp data (relative): 0.350233474 seconds]
    Data (1492 bytes)

0000  ee 57 05 00 00 00 00 00 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17   .W..............
0010  18 19 1a 1b 1c 1d 1e 1f 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27   ........ !"#$%&'
0020  28 29 2a 2b 2c 2d 2e 2f 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37   ()*+,-./01234567
0030  38 39 3a 3b 3c 3d 3e 3f 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47   89:;<=>[email protected]
0040  48 49 4a 4b 4c 4d 4e 4f 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57   HIJKLMNOPQRSTUVW
0050  58 59 5a 5b 5c 5d 5e 5f 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67   XYZ[\]^_`abcdefg
0060  68 69 6a 6b 6c 6d 6e 6f 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77   hijklmnopqrstuvw
0070  78 79 7a 7b 7c 7d 7e 7f 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87   xyz{|}~.........
0080  88 89 8a 8b 8c 8d 8e 8f 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97   ................
0090  98 99 9a 9b 9c 9d 9e 9f a0 a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6 a7   ................
00a0  a8 a9 aa ab ac ad ae af b0 b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 b6 b7   ................
00b0  b8 b9 ba bb bc bd be bf c0 c1 c2 c3 c4 c5 c6 c7   ................
00c0  c8 c9 ca cb cc cd ce cf d0 d1 d2 d3 d4 d5 d6 d7   ................
00d0  d8 d9 da db dc dd de df e0 e1 e2 e3 e4 e5 e6 e7   ................
00e0  e8 e9 ea eb ec ed ee ef f0 f1 f2 f3 f4 f5 f6 f7   ................
00f0  f8 f9 fa fb fc fd fe ff 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07   ................
0100  08 09 0a 0b 0c 0d 0e 0f 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17   ................
0110  18 19 1a 1b 1c 1d 1e 1f 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27   ........ !"#$%&'
0120  28 29 2a 2b 2c 2d 2e 2f 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37   ()*+,-./01234567
0130  38 39 3a 3b 3c 3d 3e 3f 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47   89:;<=>[email protected]
0140  48 49 4a 4b 4c 4d 4e 4f 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57   HIJKLMNOPQRSTUVW
0150  58 59 5a 5b 5c 5d 5e 5f 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67   XYZ[\]^_`abcdefg
0160  68 69 6a 6b 6c 6d 6e 6f 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77   hijklmnopqrstuvw
0170  78 79 7a 7b 7c 7d 7e 7f 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87   xyz{|}~.........
0180  88 89 8a 8b 8c 8d 8e 8f 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97   ................
0190  98 99 9a 9b 9c 9d 9e 9f a0 a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6 a7   ................
01a0  a8 a9 aa ab ac ad ae af b0 b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 b6 b7   ................
01b0  b8 b9 ba bb bc bd be bf c0 c1 c2 c3 c4 c5 c6 c7   ................
01c0  c8 c9 ca cb cc cd ce cf d0 d1 d2 d3 d4 d5 d6 d7   ................
01d0  d8 d9 da db dc dd de df e0 e1 e2 e3 e4 e5 e6 e7   ................
01e0  e8 e9 ea eb ec ed ee ef f0 f1 f2 f3 f4 f5 f6 f7   ................
01f0  f8 f9 fa fb fc fd fe ff 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07   ................
0200  08 09 0a 0b 0c 0d 0e 0f 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17   ................
0210  18 19 1a 1b 1c 1d 1e 1f 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27   ........ !"#$%&'
0220  28 29 2a 2b 2c 2d 2e 2f 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37   ()*+,-./01234567
0230  38 39 3a 3b 3c 3d 3e 3f 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47   89:;<=>[email protected]
0240  48 49 4a 4b 4c 4d 4e 4f 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57   HIJKLMNOPQRSTUVW
0250  58 59 5a 5b 5c 5d 5e 5f 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67   XYZ[\]^_`abcdefg
0260  68 69 6a 6b 6c 6d 6e 6f 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77   hijklmnopqrstuvw
0270  78 79 7a 7b 7c 7d 7e 7f 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87   xyz{|}~.........
0280  88 89 8a 8b 8c 8d 8e 8f 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97   ................
0290  98 99 9a 9b 9c 9d 9e 9f a0 a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6 a7   ................
02a0  a8 a9 aa ab ac ad ae af b0 b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 b6 b7   ................
02b0  b8 b9 ba bb bc bd be bf c0 c1 c2 c3 c4 c5 c6 c7   ................
02c0  c8 c9 ca cb cc cd ce cf d0 d1 d2 d3 d4 d5 d6 d7   ................
02d0  d8 d9 da db dc dd de df e0 e1 e2 e3 e4 e5 e6 e7   ................
02e0  e8 e9 ea eb ec ed ee ef f0 f1 f2 f3 f4 f5 f6 f7   ................
02f0  f8 f9 fa fb fc fd fe ff 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07   ................
0300  08 09 0a 0b 0c 0d 0e 0f 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17   ................
0310  18 19 1a 1b 1c 1d 1e 1f 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27   ........ !"#$%&'
0320  28 29 2a 2b 2c 2d 2e 2f 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37   ()*+,-./01234567
0330  38 39 3a 3b 3c 3d 3e 3f 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47   89:;<=>[email protected]
0340  48 49 4a 4b 4c 4d 4e 4f 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57   HIJKLMNOPQRSTUVW
0350  58 59 5a 5b 5c 5d 5e 5f 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67   XYZ[\]^_`abcdefg
0360  68 69 6a 6b 6c 6d 6e 6f 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77   hijklmnopqrstuvw
0370  78 79 7a 7b 7c 7d 7e 7f 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87   xyz{|}~.........
0380  88 89 8a 8b 8c 8d 8e 8f 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97   ................
0390  98 99 9a 9b 9c 9d 9e 9f a0 a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6 a7   ................
03a0  a8 a9 aa ab ac ad ae af b0 b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 b6 b7   ................
03b0  b8 b9 ba bb bc bd be bf c0 c1 c2 c3 c4 c5 c6 c7   ................
03c0  c8 c9 ca cb cc cd ce cf d0 d1 d2 d3 d4 d5 d6 d7   ................
03d0  d8 d9 da db dc dd de df e0 e1 e2 e3 e4 e5 e6 e7   ................
03e0  e8 e9 ea eb ec ed ee ef f0 f1 f2 f3 f4 f5 f6 f7   ................
03f0  f8 f9 fa fb fc fd fe ff 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07   ................
0400  08 09 0a 0b 0c 0d 0e 0f 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17   ................
0410  18 19 1a 1b 1c 1d 1e 1f 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27   ........ !"#$%&'
0420  28 29 2a 2b 2c 2d 2e 2f 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37   ()*+,-./01234567
0430  38 39 3a 3b 3c 3d 3e 3f 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47   89:;<=>[email protected]
0440  48 49 4a 4b 4c 4d 4e 4f 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57   HIJKLMNOPQRSTUVW
0450  58 59 5a 5b 5c 5d 5e 5f 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67   XYZ[\]^_`abcdefg
0460  68 69 6a 6b 6c 6d 6e 6f 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77   hijklmnopqrstuvw
0470  78 79 7a 7b 7c 7d 7e 7f 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87   xyz{|}~.........
0480  88 89 8a 8b 8c 8d 8e 8f 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97   ................
0490  98 99 9a 9b 9c 9d 9e 9f a0 a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6 a7   ................
04a0  a8 a9 aa ab ac ad ae af b0 b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 b6 b7   ................
04b0  b8 b9 ba bb bc bd be bf c0 c1 c2 c3 c4 c5 c6 c7   ................
04c0  c8 c9 ca cb cc cd ce cf d0 d1 d2 d3 d4 d5 d6 d7   ................
04d0  d8 d9 da db dc dd de df e0 e1 e2 e3 e4 e5 e6 e7   ................
04e0  e8 e9 ea eb ec ed ee ef f0 f1 f2 f3 f4 f5 f6 f7   ................
04f0  f8 f9 fa fb fc fd fe ff 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07   ................
0500  08 09 0a 0b 0c 0d 0e 0f 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17   ................
0510  18 19 1a 1b 1c 1d 1e 1f 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27   ........ !"#$%&'
0520  28 29 2a 2b 2c 2d 2e 2f 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37   ()*+,-./01234567
0530  38 39 3a 3b 3c 3d 3e 3f 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47   89:;<=>[email protected]
0540  48 49 4a 4b 4c 4d 4e 4f 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57   HIJKLMNOPQRSTUVW
0550  58 59 5a 5b 5c 5d 5e 5f 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67   XYZ[\]^_`abcdefg
0560  68 69 6a 6b 6c 6d 6e 6f 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77   hijklmnopqrstuvw
0570  78 79 7a 7b 7c 7d 7e 7f 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87   xyz{|}~.........
0580  88 89 8a 8b 8c 8d 8e 8f 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97   ................
0590  98 99 9a 9b 9c 9d 9e 9f a0 a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6 a7   ................
05a0  a8 a9 aa ab ac ad ae af b0 b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 b6 b7   ................
05b0  b8 b9 ba bb bc bd be bf c0 c1 c2 c3 c4 c5 c6 c7   ................
05c0  c8 c9 ca cb cc cd ce cf d0 d1 d2 d3 d4 d5 d6 d7   ................
05d0  d8 d9 da db                                       ....
        Data: ee57050000000000101112131415161718191a1b1c1d1e1f...
        [Length: 1492]

Let’s focus on the ICMP part of the packet. Notice the data block is 1492 bytes. Adding an additional 8 bytes for the ICMP header totals 1500 bytes for the ICMP portion of this packet. We still need to add the IP header, this additional information will cause the packet to exceed 1500 bytes.

Internet Control Message Protocol
    Type: 8 (Echo (ping) request)
    Code: 0
    Checksum: 0x710e [correct]
    [Checksum Status: Good]
    Identifier (BE): 10184 (0x27c8)
    Identifier (LE): 51239 (0xc827)
    Sequence number (BE): 1 (0x0001)
    Sequence number (LE): 256 (0x0100)
    Timestamp from icmp data: Jul  8, 2020 12:18:15.000000000 CDT
    [Timestamp from icmp data (relative): 0.350233474 seconds]
    Data (1492 bytes)

Looking at the full packet, we see the total length is 1528 bytes. This is beyond what our 1500 byte interface is capable of handling:

Total Length: 1528

When the size of the ICMP packet is set to 1500 bytes, that is not taking into account the overhead of the IP header. For the command to succeed, the payload of the ICMP packet PLUS all other headers must not exceed 1500 bytes.

Looking at tshark again with a ICMP packet length of 1472 shows that the ICMP data payload is set to 1464, this combined with the ICMP headers = 1472 bytes. Adding on the overhead of the IP header and the packet stays within the 1500 byte limit:

Internet Protocol Version 4, Src: 192.168.86.5, Dst: 128.252.5.113
    0100 .... = Version: 4
    .... 0101 = Header Length: 20 bytes (5)
    Differentiated Services Field: 0x00 (DSCP: CS0, ECN: Not-ECT)
        0000 00.. = Differentiated Services Codepoint: Default (0)
        .... ..00 = Explicit Congestion Notification: Not ECN-Capable Transport (0)
    Total Length: 1500
    Identification: 0x0000 (0)
    Flags: 0x4000, Don't fragment
        0... .... .... .... = Reserved bit: Not set
        .1.. .... .... .... = Don't fragment: Set
        ..0. .... .... .... = More fragments: Not set
        ...0 0000 0000 0000 = Fragment offset: 0
    Time to live: 64
    Protocol: ICMP (1)
    Header checksum: 0x9806 [validation disabled]
    [Header checksum status: Unverified]
    Source: 192.168.86.5
    Destination: 128.252.5.113
Internet Control Message Protocol
    Type: 8 (Echo (ping) request)
    Code: 0
    Checksum: 0x24fd [correct]
    [Checksum Status: Good]
    Identifier (BE): 10864 (0x2a70)
    Identifier (LE): 28714 (0x702a)
    Sequence number (BE): 1 (0x0001)
    Sequence number (LE): 256 (0x0100)
    Timestamp from icmp data: Jul  8, 2020 12:38:45.000000000 CDT
    [Timestamp from icmp data (relative): 0.658390228 seconds]
    Data (1464 bytes)

0000  a6 0b 0a 00 00 00 00 00 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17   ................
0010  18 19 1a 1b 1c 1d 1e 1f 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27   ........ !"#$%&'
0020  28 29 2a 2b 2c 2d 2e 2f 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37   ()*+,-./01234567
0030  38 39 3a 3b 3c 3d 3e 3f 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47   89:;<=>[email protected]
0040  48 49 4a 4b 4c 4d 4e 4f 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57   HIJKLMNOPQRSTUVW
0050  58 59 5a 5b 5c 5d 5e 5f 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67   XYZ[\]^_`abcdefg
0060  68 69 6a 6b 6c 6d 6e 6f 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77   hijklmnopqrstuvw
0070  78 79 7a 7b 7c 7d 7e 7f 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87   xyz{|}~.........
0080  88 89 8a 8b 8c 8d 8e 8f 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97   ................
0090  98 99 9a 9b 9c 9d 9e 9f a0 a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6 a7   ................
00a0  a8 a9 aa ab ac ad ae af b0 b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 b6 b7   ................
00b0  b8 b9 ba bb bc bd be bf c0 c1 c2 c3 c4 c5 c6 c7   ................
00c0  c8 c9 ca cb cc cd ce cf d0 d1 d2 d3 d4 d5 d6 d7   ................
00d0  d8 d9 da db dc dd de df e0 e1 e2 e3 e4 e5 e6 e7   ................
00e0  e8 e9 ea eb ec ed ee ef f0 f1 f2 f3 f4 f5 f6 f7   ................
00f0  f8 f9 fa fb fc fd fe ff 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07   ................
0100  08 09 0a 0b 0c 0d 0e 0f 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17   ................
0110  18 19 1a 1b 1c 1d 1e 1f 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27   ........ !"#$%&'
0120  28 29 2a 2b 2c 2d 2e 2f 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37   ()*+,-./01234567
0130  38 39 3a 3b 3c 3d 3e 3f 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47   89:;<=>[email protected]
0140  48 49 4a 4b 4c 4d 4e 4f 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57   HIJKLMNOPQRSTUVW
0150  58 59 5a 5b 5c 5d 5e 5f 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67   XYZ[\]^_`abcdefg
0160  68 69 6a 6b 6c 6d 6e 6f 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77   hijklmnopqrstuvw
0170  78 79 7a 7b 7c 7d 7e 7f 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87   xyz{|}~.........
0180  88 89 8a 8b 8c 8d 8e 8f 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97   ................
0190  98 99 9a 9b 9c 9d 9e 9f a0 a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6 a7   ................
01a0  a8 a9 aa ab ac ad ae af b0 b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 b6 b7   ................
01b0  b8 b9 ba bb bc bd be bf c0 c1 c2 c3 c4 c5 c6 c7   ................
01c0  c8 c9 ca cb cc cd ce cf d0 d1 d2 d3 d4 d5 d6 d7   ................
01d0  d8 d9 da db dc dd de df e0 e1 e2 e3 e4 e5 e6 e7   ................
01e0  e8 e9 ea eb ec ed ee ef f0 f1 f2 f3 f4 f5 f6 f7   ................
01f0  f8 f9 fa fb fc fd fe ff 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07   ................
0200  08 09 0a 0b 0c 0d 0e 0f 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17   ................
0210  18 19 1a 1b 1c 1d 1e 1f 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27   ........ !"#$%&'
0220  28 29 2a 2b 2c 2d 2e 2f 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37   ()*+,-./01234567
0230  38 39 3a 3b 3c 3d 3e 3f 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47   89:;<=>[email protected]
0240  48 49 4a 4b 4c 4d 4e 4f 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57   HIJKLMNOPQRSTUVW
0250  58 59 5a 5b 5c 5d 5e 5f 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67   XYZ[\]^_`abcdefg
0260  68 69 6a 6b 6c 6d 6e 6f 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77   hijklmnopqrstuvw
0270  78 79 7a 7b 7c 7d 7e 7f 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87   xyz{|}~.........
0280  88 89 8a 8b 8c 8d 8e 8f 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97   ................
0290  98 99 9a 9b 9c 9d 9e 9f a0 a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6 a7   ................
02a0  a8 a9 aa ab ac ad ae af b0 b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 b6 b7   ................
02b0  b8 b9 ba bb bc bd be bf c0 c1 c2 c3 c4 c5 c6 c7   ................
02c0  c8 c9 ca cb cc cd ce cf d0 d1 d2 d3 d4 d5 d6 d7   ................
02d0  d8 d9 da db dc dd de df e0 e1 e2 e3 e4 e5 e6 e7   ................
02e0  e8 e9 ea eb ec ed ee ef f0 f1 f2 f3 f4 f5 f6 f7   ................
02f0  f8 f9 fa fb fc fd fe ff 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07   ................
0300  08 09 0a 0b 0c 0d 0e 0f 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17   ................
0310  18 19 1a 1b 1c 1d 1e 1f 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27   ........ !"#$%&'
0320  28 29 2a 2b 2c 2d 2e 2f 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37   ()*+,-./01234567
0330  38 39 3a 3b 3c 3d 3e 3f 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47   89:;<=>[email protected]
0340  48 49 4a 4b 4c 4d 4e 4f 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57   HIJKLMNOPQRSTUVW
0350  58 59 5a 5b 5c 5d 5e 5f 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67   XYZ[\]^_`abcdefg
0360  68 69 6a 6b 6c 6d 6e 6f 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77   hijklmnopqrstuvw
0370  78 79 7a 7b 7c 7d 7e 7f 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87   xyz{|}~.........
0380  88 89 8a 8b 8c 8d 8e 8f 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97   ................
0390  98 99 9a 9b 9c 9d 9e 9f a0 a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6 a7   ................
03a0  a8 a9 aa ab ac ad ae af b0 b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 b6 b7   ................
03b0  b8 b9 ba bb bc bd be bf c0 c1 c2 c3 c4 c5 c6 c7   ................
03c0  c8 c9 ca cb cc cd ce cf d0 d1 d2 d3 d4 d5 d6 d7   ................
03d0  d8 d9 da db dc dd de df e0 e1 e2 e3 e4 e5 e6 e7   ................
03e0  e8 e9 ea eb ec ed ee ef f0 f1 f2 f3 f4 f5 f6 f7   ................
03f0  f8 f9 fa fb fc fd fe ff 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07   ................
0400  08 09 0a 0b 0c 0d 0e 0f 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17   ................
0410  18 19 1a 1b 1c 1d 1e 1f 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27   ........ !"#$%&'
0420  28 29 2a 2b 2c 2d 2e 2f 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37   ()*+,-./01234567
0430  38 39 3a 3b 3c 3d 3e 3f 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47   89:;<=>[email protected]
0440  48 49 4a 4b 4c 4d 4e 4f 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57   HIJKLMNOPQRSTUVW
0450  58 59 5a 5b 5c 5d 5e 5f 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67   XYZ[\]^_`abcdefg
0460  68 69 6a 6b 6c 6d 6e 6f 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77   hijklmnopqrstuvw
0470  78 79 7a 7b 7c 7d 7e 7f 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87   xyz{|}~.........
0480  88 89 8a 8b 8c 8d 8e 8f 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97   ................
0490  98 99 9a 9b 9c 9d 9e 9f a0 a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6 a7   ................
04a0  a8 a9 aa ab ac ad ae af b0 b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 b6 b7   ................
04b0  b8 b9 ba bb bc bd be bf c0 c1 c2 c3 c4 c5 c6 c7   ................
04c0  c8 c9 ca cb cc cd ce cf d0 d1 d2 d3 d4 d5 d6 d7   ................
04d0  d8 d9 da db dc dd de df e0 e1 e2 e3 e4 e5 e6 e7   ................
04e0  e8 e9 ea eb ec ed ee ef f0 f1 f2 f3 f4 f5 f6 f7   ................
04f0  f8 f9 fa fb fc fd fe ff 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07   ................
0500  08 09 0a 0b 0c 0d 0e 0f 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17   ................
0510  18 19 1a 1b 1c 1d 1e 1f 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27   ........ !"#$%&'
0520  28 29 2a 2b 2c 2d 2e 2f 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37   ()*+,-./01234567
0530  38 39 3a 3b 3c 3d 3e 3f 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47   89:;<=>[email protected]
0540  48 49 4a 4b 4c 4d 4e 4f 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57   HIJKLMNOPQRSTUVW
0550  58 59 5a 5b 5c 5d 5e 5f 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67   XYZ[\]^_`abcdefg
0560  68 69 6a 6b 6c 6d 6e 6f 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77   hijklmnopqrstuvw
0570  78 79 7a 7b 7c 7d 7e 7f 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87   xyz{|}~.........
0580  88 89 8a 8b 8c 8d 8e 8f 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97   ................
0590  98 99 9a 9b 9c 9d 9e 9f a0 a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6 a7   ................
05a0  a8 a9 aa ab ac ad ae af b0 b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 b6 b7   ................
05b0  b8 b9 ba bb bc bd be bf                           ........
        Data: a60b0a0000000000101112131415161718191a1b1c1d1e1f...
        [Length: 1464]

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